Kelvin W. Willoughby

What Can Be Patented?

Confronting the Confusion in Patent Law
About Patent Eligible Subject Matter

(Saarbrücken, Germany: Scholars’ Press, 2014)     ISBN: 978-3-639-70068-8

Patents play a critical role in business, society and technological innovation in the contemporary knowledge economy. The question of what types of inventions may be patented, however, has become highly contentious in patent offices, law courts, legislatures, scientific organizations, international trade forums and various business or social advocacy groups around the world. Under what conditions—if any—may computer software, DNA-based products, new business techniques, medical diagnostic methods, or systems operating over the Internet, for example, be patented? Conflict and confusion in the law surrounding these questions has created destructive uncertainty amongst technologists, entrepreneurs, investors, medical practitioners, community groups and policy makers. This book tackles the problem through a comparative study of statutory law and case law in the United States and Europe, as well as international law, concerned with what subject matter is patent eligible. In particular the book explores whether only technical inventions should be eligible for patent protection and, if so, whether those inventions must be physical in order to qualify as “technology” in patent law.

What Can Be Patented?

Confronting the Confusion in Patent Law About Patent Eligible Subject Matter

Kelvin W. Willoughby

Technology Choice

(Boulder and San Francisco: Westview Press, 1990).  © Prof. Kelvin W. Willoughby.

Purchase price:  US$20.00

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Note: Residents of countries outside the United States should obtain copies of the book from the publisher who owns the copyright for the rest of the world, Intermediate Technology Publications, Ltd. (trading as Practical Action Publishing) by visiting the Development Bookshop at:

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Kelvin W. Willoughby

Technology and the

Competititve Advantage of Regions

IURD Monograph No. 44 (Berkeley: University of California, 1993). © Prof. Kelvin W. Willoughby.

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Technology and the Competittive Advantage of Regions

Kelvin W. Willoughby & Jeremy Moon

An Evaluation of Local Enterprise

Initiatives: The Case of Esperance

(Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1989).

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to a copy of this book:

An Evaluation of Local Enterprise Initiatives

Kelvin W. Willoughby

Technology for Employment Creation

Second Edition (Fremantle & Sydney : APACE Publications, 1985). © Prof. Kelvin W. Willoughby.

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Technology for Employment Creation

Zhouying Jin (author)

Kelvin W. Willoughby (editor & co-translator)

Ying Bai (co-translator)

Global Technological Change

From Hard Technology to Soft Technology

Second Edition (Bristol, UK; Portland, Oregon, USA: Intellect Books, 2010).

Purchase price:  £24.95, US$50

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Global Technological Change

Kelvin W. Willoughby

Minnesota's Competitive Position in the BioBusiness Technology Industries.

(St. Louis Park, MN: BioBusiness Alliance of Minnesota, 2011)